The National Archives of Romania are the oldest archival institution in Romania, dating back to the first half of the 19th century - 1831 in Wallachia and 1832 in Moldova. The modern unified State Archives is functioning since 1862, after the union of the two principalities. The National Archives of Romania – the new name taken in 1996 – contains all sorts of documents from Middle Age to Communism. The National Archives were designated to take over the main political and historical archive of the former totalitarian regime: the documents from the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party. After the Revolution of December 1989, the archive of the Party-State went into the custody of the military, but at the beginning of the next decade the decision was taken to be handed over to the National Archives of Romania. The huge amount of documents produced between 1921 – the founding date of the Party – and its demise in 1989 consists in thousand of files of the former Sections of the Central Committee, especially after 1944, when the Communist Party took over the Government. Studying the social and political history of Romania in the 20th century is impossible without the files form the National Archives.
Established in 2000, the National Council for the Study of the Securitate Archives is mainly an investigation agency of the former Communist secret police files. Its main task is to provide the political arena with information about the political candidates, high ranking officials etc. The National Council for the Study of the Securitate Archives also allows victims of poltical repression during Communism or their relatives to access their personal file in order to find the perpetrators of those abusive policies. The new institution transferred some of the secret archives of the former political police, including the historical part of it – the files taken by the Securitate from the former Siguranta – much of it having no relation with the Communist regime, but instead being now accessible with same regime as the political one.
Established after World War I, the Romanian Military Archives are a specialized department within the Ministry of Defence. It is the only archives which is not located in Bucharest, but in Piteşti.
The Diplomatic Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is also a specialized office. It was established in 1862 and it contains approximately 8,000 linear metres of files.